Comparison of Well Water Rehabilitation Methods

Use

The controlled injection of liquified and gaseous Carbon Dioxide is introduced into the well under confined conditions to remove mineral incrustation (iron, manganese and calcium), as well as iron related, sulfate reducing and slime forming bacteria and physical plugging from silts, sands and clays.

Pros

Effective at removing mineral incrustation, biological fouling and physical plugging in both open hole and screened wells with a wide variety of construction characteristics and materials. Extensive geological formation penetration. 100% Green and environmentally sound with no adverse chemical waste stream.

Cons

None

Method

Traditional Chemical and Acid cleaning used in conjunction with pumping/surging

Use

Chemical solutions (Phosphoric, sulfamic, citric, hydrochloric, hydroxyacetic etc.) and chemicals to remove specific types of mineral incrustation, biological fouling and physical plugging from silts, sands and clays.

Pros

Effective at dissolving minerals and impacting biological activity and physical plugging (silts, sands, clay).

Cons

Chemical solution must be tailored specifically for plugging problem to be effective. Limited geological formation penetration. Produces a waste stream of spent chemicals and acids that must be neutralized and disposed of properly which can drive up costs.

Method

Wire Charge Methods
Sonar-Jet, Shock Blasting, Prima Cord, etc.

Use

Relies on the sudden release of explosive charge to create a percussive wave.

Pros

Effective at removing mineral scale from well screens. Not considered a thorough rehabilitation technique. Can be useful as a pretreatment for a chemical or Aqua Freed treatment.

Cons

Very limited penetration into the formation. Not effective on Biofouling or physical plugging.

Method

Fluid Percussive Methods
Airburst, Airshock, Nitrogen Shock

Use

Relies on the sudden release of nitrogen or air from down hole tools or guns into a well to create a percussive wave for the removal of mineral incrustation.

Pros

Effective at removing mineral scale from well screens. Not considered a thorough rehabilitation technique. Can be useful as a pretreatment for a chemical or Aqua Freed treatment.

Cons

Very limited penetration into the formation. Not effective on Biofouling or physical plugging.

Method

Hydro Fracturing

Use

Relies on the use of high pressure water injection.

Pros

Useful in low flow fractured well formations to improve production primarily on small residential wells.

Cons

Not effective in screened wells. Requires the use of high pressure water (up to 2800 PSI) to force water where water is not freely flowing. Source water quality not verified.

Method

Jetting

Use

Uses high pressure water with either fixed or rotating jetting nozzles at varying pressures of up to 18,000 PSI.

Pros

Effective at removing mineral incrustation from well screens.

Cons

Historically limited penetration into the surrounding formation. With the higher pressure jetting the risk of well damage is greatly increased.

Method

Blended Chemical Heat Treatment

Use

Not wide enough use to be considered.

Pros

Cons